Bulwark of Europe

Digitizing the Habsburg-Ottoman Frontier

Bulwark of Europe is a project studying the early history of the Croatian and Slavonian Military Frontiers, covering the period from the 1550s until the Diet in Bruck an der Mur in 1578. The aim of the project is to bring the Military Frontier to wider audiences in an interesting and interactive way.

Bulwark of Europe this year presented itself at the history festival "Kliofest" and at 3rd Art Summer of Križevci. We invite you to view the exhibition in digital format at the following link:

Discover how battles were fought on the Military Frontier

Fortresses and fortification architecture

More than a hundred fortresses are mentioned in the period between 1554 and 1578. Although some are forever lost to history, sources reveal information on others.


Primary sources

Popis original
Military payrolls

Click here to access tables systematising the data found in the published military payrolls for the period between 1554 and 1586.

Karta HRV

Click here to access maps which the team have used to locate fortresses, excerpts from the relevant literature and contemporary reports, reference lists, scientific articles and much more.

Before After 1577 - naslovna slajder1578 - naslovna slajder

Explore how the border shifted over the years

Although large-scale offensives were few and rare, that does not mean they never happened – the best example is the fall of Pounje in 1577-1578.